More efforts are needed to cure the remaining heat

2022-08-11
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Taking a comprehensive view of the development of the global steel industry, Europe, Japan and other places have experienced a serious stage of overcapacity. However, the above-mentioned regional governments soon realized the seriousness of the problem and solved the problems of overcapacity and backward production capacity by implementing policies or plans such as the Davignon plan, the emergency plan for the iron and steel industry and the reduction of operations

the experience of Europe and Japan can provide reference for China's current steel industry to deal with the dilemma of overcapacity

Europe is the birthplace of modern steel industry. After World War II, European countries entered the post-war recovery and reconstruction period (1945 ~ early 1960s). In order to establish the same market for coal and steel, in 1951, six countries including France, Federal Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Treaty of the European Coal and steel community. The treaty came into force in July the following year, marking the official establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community. From the early 1960s to the mid 1970s, the iron and steel industry in European countries was undergoing reconstruction and expansion. At the initial stage of reconstruction and expansion, European countries have increased investment in the steel industry, resulting in a rapid increase in steel production capacity, and crude steel production in Britain, France, Germany and other countries has reached a peak. However, at this time, the heavy industrialization stage was gradually completed, the growth rate of steel consumption slowed down, and the steel plants planned to invest were constructed as usual, and the projects previously invested in construction were also completed one after another, forming new capacity and constantly putting into production, and the risk of overcapacity gradually increased. Then, the first oil crisis broke out in 1973, and the European steel industry quickly fell into the dilemma of overcapacity, and the enterprises suffered serious losses. The European steel industry was facing a huge crisis, and began to enter a customer service adjustment period (in the mid and late 1970s) that we could contact at any time. During this period, there was a serious overcapacity and the operation of the steel industry was difficult. In order to maintain social stability and ensure employment, European governments gave large-scale subsidies to the steel industry. Steel mills relied on government subsidies to fully ensure the existing capacity, but government subsidies did not change the plight of the European steel industry

in order to solve the dilemma of European steel industry, the European community has formulated a series of plans starting from reducing steel production capacity. For example, in 1979, the European community proposed the "Davignon plan", which called for limiting the European Community's steel production capacity; In 1980, the European community decided to implement an emergency plan for the iron and steel industry from the fourth quarter of 1980 to the first half of 1981, and forcibly cut steel production by 13% to 20%; In March, 1981, the European Community stipulated that the production reduction plan was a prerequisite for the state to provide assistance

from the perspective of the measures taken by the European community to solve the problem of overcapacity, there are mainly the following aspects: first, steel wire rope, which is a rope made of multiple or multiple strands of thin steel wires. It is a flexible component widely used in engineering. It has the advantages of high strength, light weight, good elasticity, stable and reliable work, strong ability to bear dynamic load and overload, and no noise during operation and winding under high-speed working conditions. It is widely used in construction, mining, metallurgy, transportation Tourism and other major industries and departments of the national economy have been widely used to play a market role, and gradually reduce or cancel financial subsidies to the steel industry, forcing them to reduce production capacity by themselves in the fierce market competition; Second, give play to the role of administrative intervention, strictly restrict and reduce steel production capacity, and close a large number of backward and inefficient production capacity; Third, implement voluntary restrictions, subsidize enterprises that take the initiative to reduce production capacity and arrange reemployment, so as to promote uncompetitive enterprises to withdraw from the market; Fourth, implement output restriction measures to limit the steel output of Member States and the maximum trade volume of most varieties of steel in European Community Member States through the quota system; Fifth, adjust the structure of steel products and carry out technological upgrading. For example, with the help of the state, Luxembourg gradually eliminated the production of ordinary steel products and turned to the production of special steel with high-tech content and high added value

Japan, which was once mired in the mire of steel production capacity like Europe, has solved its problems through another path

after World War II, Japan's steel industry developed rapidly, and the steel output increased rapidly, which not only met the domestic steel demand, but also exported a large number of products to overseas markets. After the outbreak of the oil crisis in 1973, the demand for steel slowed sharply, and Japan's steel industry also experienced serious overcapacity

in order to solve the problem of overcapacity, Japan has taken a series of measures. The first is to implement the policy of reducing business volume and reduce the backward production capacity of the steel industry. Reduce the production capacity of the iron and steel industry by reducing operations, adopting government administrative guidance and various restrictive measures, such as shutting down or going bankrupt non competitive enterprises, eliminating some production capacity, and reducing some production capacity through enterprise merger and reorganization integration. Second, scientific management of excess equipment. For example, implement the equipment registration system, strictly restrict the increase of equipment, and restrict the use of non registered equipment; Formulate equipment access system and strictly restrict the entry of unqualified equipment; Strictly implement the equipment elimination system, and the designated industrial departments jointly deal with excess equipment; And government compensation to encourage the elimination of excess equipment. Third, timely adjust industrial policies, promote the upgrading of industrial structure, and drive the industrial structure adjustment of the steel industry. For example, in 1975, the Japanese government began to restrict the development of raw material industry, actively encouraged the development of manufacturing industries such as electric machinery, transportation equipment and general machinery, and promoted the upgrading of industrial structure. At the same time, it greatly led to the growth of demand for high-end steel products such as special steel and automotive steel, thus promoting the industrial structure adjustment of the steel industry itself. Fourth, domestic consumption digests part of excess capacity. For example, the Japanese government timely proposed the national income doubling plan, actively implemented the minimum wage system, enhanced social security capacity, improved the endowment insurance system, improved the payment rate of health insurance (reassurance insurance), and made domestic demand one of the important ways to digest production capacity

according to the past experience of foreign countries and the current development status of China's steel industry, China needs to make more efforts to better solve the problem of steel overcapacity

first of all, we should create opportunities for fair competition and development for the industry. Subsidies and administrative restrictions were the main measures taken abroad in the 1970s and 1980s, but they are no longer appropriate at present. It is suggested that through legislation, administrative regulations, industry management, etc., enterprises of all kinds of ownership, sizes and products in the industry can compete benign in a fair environment. For example, the formulation of a unified and fair environmental protection requires the use of linear grating ruler or resistance strain gauge standards, so that non-conforming enterprises can actively seek compliance, and enterprises with backward production capacity can actively upgrade their industries

secondly, China is widely used in various fields such as construction, transportation, packaging, electric power, aerospace, machine manufacturing and information industry. We should pay attention to the role of market regulation to enable enterprises to reduce production independently and voluntarily. Under the background of serious overcapacity of steel, the overall profit margin of the industry is low, the operation of enterprises is relatively difficult, and some enterprises suffer serious losses. It is suggested that, according to the rules of market economy, on the basis of coordinating the contradiction between business difficulties and ensuring employment, enterprises should survive in fair competition, and promote some enterprises with high production costs to reduce production autonomously and voluntarily

at the same time, China also needs to adjust industrial policies in time to promote the upgrading of industrial structure. Domestic consumption digests part of the excess capacity, actively encourages the development of strategic and emerging industries such as high-end equipment manufacturing industry, energy conservation and environmental protection industry, drives the demand growth of high-end steel products such as special steel and automotive steel, and then resolves the possible overcapacity of some high-end products in China

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